10 Steps to Make Sense of Answers to Open-Ended Questions
Two-page tip sheet on how to code and analyse qualitative data.
Two-page tip sheet on how to code and analyse qualitative data.
Results from the 2019 (pre-COVID) survey of Australians attitudes to the arts. The 2019 survey was translated into community languages for the first time: Arabic, Dinka, Mandarin, Spanish, Urdu and Vietnamese.
The research found that the targeted CALD respondents were more likely to attend arts events than Australians overall, and 42% would like to attend more arts than they currently do. CALD respondents are also nearly three times more likely to give to the arts than non-CALD respondents.
This publication shares examples and case studies and provides a framework and argument for cultural democracy. Originating from the UK it is both a practical toolkit and a growing compendium of best practice.
Part of the Audience Research Toolkit, developed for arts organisations in Victoria, Australia, this guide outlines how to translate research findings into action. Includes an Action Your Results Template and guidance on running a group session on actioning the research findings.
Adjust Your View was intended to provide a framework for the development of multicultural audience strategies for the arts and cultural products. It also features leading Australian, US and European practices and case studies.
While the toolkit was written in 2009, it is still used across the arts for those wishing to develop multicultural audiences. This toolkit is divided into four sections - each part can used stand-alone or integrated together.
A warning on the dangers of evaluation in a cross-cultural context and encouragement to:
* Acknowledge the complexity of cultural identity
* Recognise the dynamics of power
* Recognise and eliminate bias in language
* Employ culturally appropriate methods
‘Evaluations cannot be culture free. Those who engage in evaluation do so from perspectives that reflect their values, their ways of viewing the world, and their culture.'
Advice on the basics of analysing research data, including analysing qualitative and quantitative data, interpreting and reporting the results.
Worksheet 2.6 on p. 135 of the Increasing Cultural Participation Handbook is a worksheet to evaluate an organisation's current ability to implement an audience development initiative. Question topics include not only vision and resources, but the willingness of the organisation to evolve.
The Handbook also contains a step-by-step 'how to' for audience development, including other practical tools.
This Audience Development Planning guide from the Audience Agency, is a comprehensive and practical blueprint for growing audiences, increasing reach, and building deeper relationships.
According to the Agency the guide is 'adaptable to many situations, organisations and audiences. The Audiences & Engagement team at Arts Council England have also inputted, and this guidance is consistent with their expectations for their funded organisations.'
This UK toolkit aims to give you a one-stop guide to tackling your organisation’s audience development needs, highlighting the must-have tools, offering information on the process and flagging up possible pitfalls.
Includes a section on using audience development tools in social inclusion initiatives.
An excellent resource developed for arts organisations in Victoria, Australia, by Creative Victoria. The toolkit offers guidance, templates and sample questions for conducting audience research in a variety of formats, as well as guidance on analysing the actioning the results. Also includes a project planner for getting started.
This is a powerful segmentation tool for the cultural sector.
According to the Audience Agency, "Audience Spectrum profiles the population at household and post-code levels and can be used as a tool for prospecting and data-tagging as well as profiling and mapping. Over 1000 organisations (large, small, ticketed and non-ticketed) are now using it practically and strategically."
A panel from Australia Council for the Arts featuring Ananth Gopal and Tom Henderson from Polykala & Polykala.
It asks: What forms of formal and informal authority do we have in our contexts? How do we feel about providing strong guidance, clear communication and directives? Who’s going to be hurting most in your sphere — what plans do we have in place to mitigate harm, reassure them or at least acknowledge their hardship?
Aimed at healthcare professionals, these guidelines offer advice on briefing a survey translator.
'During the translation process, translators may identify terms or concepts that are difficult to translate because they do not have the same or similar meaning in the target language as they do in English. This will lead to discussions about the goal or intent of the English-language item. Such discussions are integral to the production of a quality translation.'
UK research by Black-led British theatre Eclipse blows away any lingering assumptions that Black artists do not attract a mainstream audience. A three-month tour of Black Men Walking, a play created through a three-year project with 16 Black writers, sold out 71 of its 84 performances, with 428 or 512 respondents rating the show as four or five starts. And only 21.4% of the audience identified as Black.
While first published in 2008, this research offers a glimpse of organisations operating in the wake of 9/11, many of whom were experiencing some of the challenges and opportunities we see today.
The stories offer an insiders' account of how some organisations reinvented programs and created new activities, added new departments, shifted staff dynamics or sought partnerships with new groups in their community.
Tips and approaches to building relationships with people who don't see themselves as arts attenders. This resource was produced to support a Creative People and Places National Peer Learning and Communications Programme panel session 'Defining relevance' at the Arts Marketing Association conference 2016.
A case study from the Museum of London with discussion points including:
1. Small changes to recruitment processes can create major changes to workforce diversity
2. Recruiting is only half the challenge, retaining these new staff in a meaningful and supported way is key
3. Content, collections and research becoming more representative – but can have different stakeholder influences
4. Content co-created with people
5. Representing underserved communities
A good primer on "community-engaged practice" and ways to think about working with people in communities and building relationships without gatekeeping.
This book is published in Australia and this chapter excerpt has be posted by the UK based organisation Co-Creating Change
A blog series for the 'Cultural Heritage and Identities of Europe's Future' project addressing challenges in minorities’ rights and cultural diversity. Particular focus on youth radicalisation, questioning of the European project, the revival of tribal identities, education and policy.
In this podcast, Jade Lillie and Lia Pa’apa’a discuss best practice in community engagement.
Topics covered include: culturally and creatively safe spaces, starting a project the way that we want to finish it and the importance of being able to share failure and learn from it.
A free, one-stop shop toolkit from Creative Victoria to help you understand your audience, build new audiences, set up surveys and consultations, analyse and report results, work with stakeholders, and ensure best practice research.
Includes guidance on accessibility and a project planner template.
This article analyses, in the context of Norway, questions about what it means to democratise culture and what role institutions have to play in this. It looks at frameworks of cultural responsibility and the challenges and failures the Arts Council Norway has faced in its "diversity" initiatives, and how it has recalibrated it goals in light of this.
A short article on the ‘Data, Diversity and Inequality in the Creative Industries’ project that explored data and patterns of diversity and inequality within the UK creative industries. Case studies feature The National Theatre Archive, Arts Council England, Digital Creativity Labs and BBC R&D.
A paper introducing inclusive cultural tactics that expose and amplify some of the complexities of culture in order to dissect challenging social problems. Including US case studies, it shows how cultural tactics can act as leverage points for social justice.
A video Kirsten Paisley explains how the Shepparton Art Museum (SAM) have broadened their audiences by developing programs to partner with and invite communities from culturally diverse cultural backgrounds into their gallery.
It's one of the videos in the Developing Diverse Audiences series addressing methods to make museums accessible and inclusive, considering new audiences, audiences with disabilities and audiences from diverse backgrounds.
The marketing mix from social inclusion organisation Nesta, is a "key tool to help you get buy-in from stakeholders for your project. This tool helps clarify their needs and experiences and helps to think of how to improve your current or future offering.
You can start filling out the different boxes in the worksheet in no particular order. Just go through each section and adapt your answers until you feel they sufficiently answer the questions posed."
Does your organization reflect the community it serves? This tool helps assess how an organisation could improve in servicing the diversity of its community. Includes reflection questions and strategies for how to build diversity.
Diversity Arts’ Executive Director Lena Nahlous and Creatives of Colour’s Rani Pramesti discuss innovative forms of research in the arts, especially in relation to diverse audiences.
"We're beginning to get a grip on the influence of this work and its impact and it's harder to measure than more traditional means of research, but that doesn't mean that it's not measurable, because it is." - Lena Nahlous
A sample survey developed by Culture Counts for assessing the impact of a work of art on an audience. Includes Likert-style 'dimension' questions on Captivation, Challenge, Distinctiveness, Connection, Meaning, Relevance, Rigour, Risk and Local Impact. These areas can be tailored according to the strategic priorities on the organisation.
A guide for intercultural researchers which provides guidelines for conducting of multinational, multicultural, or multiregional surveys. This extensive site brings together leading practice in survey methodology and in cross-cultural research. Includes case studies and recommendations.
Guidelines for UK evaluations.
[The guidelines] 'are grounded in the experience of conducting evaluations and are underpinned by the relational and consequence theories of ethics and democratic principles and values.'
A toolkit featuring interviews, case studies and activities to introduce "Horizontal Development," a new American urban development approach that centres the margins, highlights diversity, celebrates place and is accountable to those impacted by the racist and classist policies by cities.
The Fourth panel video in Wallace’s Arts Conversation Series examines ways in which "cultural organizations can adapt to be more responsive to diverse audiences’ needs."
Features conversations between Anna Glass, DTH; Madeline Smith, Slover Linett; Nancy Yao Massbach, MOCA; and Josephine Ramirez, The Music Center.
Article on collaborations in the arts that have increased profits, expanded audiences and help marketing.
For example, the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra developed a partnership with local African American churches. It 'is located in an African American neighborhood, but area residents had criticized the orchestra for being aloof from its community. The partnership has created not just better community feelings but also an enthusiastic new audience segment for the orchestra.'
Dr Melika Yassin Sheikh-Eldin, International and Community Development Manager at AMES Australia and Lorraine Jokovic, CEO of LOUD Communications, discuss how to ensure your campaigns in languages other than English hit the mark. Just as you would use different channels for different demographics (research shows, for example, different social media channels are more popular with different age groups), placing your campaign on channels used by audiences increases your reach.
A summary and starting point for a set of documents developed by academics and audience specialists that are meant to be useful to practitioners, policy makers, academics, students and everyone interested in deepening their understanding of Audience Development in the EU.
Topics include: Where to start, a primer on audience development including key concepts, how to support audience development, and a catalogue of 30 case studies.
The Inclusiveness Index identifies and captures the degree of group-based inclusion and marginality experienced across the world. Focusing on policy, laws, and institutions, it holistically examines group experience across gender, race/ethnicity, religion, disability, and sexual orientation dimensions. Features datasets, resources and reports.
A guide to a participatory approach that links movement building with narrative power analysis towards social change storytelling. Features story elements; breaking-down power for goals, audiences, targets and constituencies; understanding your audience; points of intervention; action logic; cracks and cross-checking.
Donna Walker-Khune is America’s leading audience diversity expert. This is a public lecture delivered in Australia in 2003. As the author of 'Invitation to the Party', she reflects on what makes diverse audience development strategies work, gives examples of success stories, and advice on how to develop deep links with culturally diverse communities for the arts.
This article is part of a larger series that focuses on diversity and equity in marketing through the amplification of Black and racially diverse authors. It makes the connection between DEI and Marketing, why investment in Multicultural marketing can create a more diverse workforce, and adapting to shifting consumer cultures.
Case studies, resources and response rates for various creative evaluation tools set up at the Curiosity Carnival, a festival of public engagement with research at venues throughout Oxford University. Includes a graffiti wall, rating cards, audience participation exercise, feedback postcards, text/email feedback, observation, facilitated rating questions and love hearts.
'For short one-off engagement activities, evaluation tools can be light-touch, designed to feel part of the activity.'
The Audience Development Fund is a grant for public galleries in NSW who wish to target and develop new audiences. It encourages applications for programs that meaningfully engage artists and communities.
A two-part report that aims to reform the way people talk about race and racism in the USA. Outlines impediments to productive racial discourse, lessons from barrier-breaking interventions, considerations for selecting spokespersons and recommendations for framing expertise, skills-building and collaboration.
Information on Survey Monkey's multilingual survey feature, with a 3:20 minute video overview.
The National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters Ltd (NAATI) provides a searchable online database of all accredited translators and interpreters in Australia, including over 15,000 practitioners in more than 170 languages.
NESTA's People & Connections Map can be a great resource when sharing what you do and how it links together within the community of stakeholders that surround you.
This tool is based on an original Stakeholder Spidergram developed by the Helsinki Design Lab, and further inspired by the Stakeholder Mapping tool by Namahn and Yellow Window.
"Creating Cultures and Practices for Racial Equity contains a variety of tools that emerged from Race Forward’s Racial Equity in the Arts Innovation Lab to help artists, arts advocates, culture bearers, and cultural workers to imagine, plan, and implement racial equity strategies in arts organizations."
Links to tipsheets, tools and resources to use when analysing evaluation data.
The Tate has published reviews of its collection by Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic staff, offering insight into the artwork that goes beyond the white gaze.
"Brunias shows the lighter the skin, the freer you are. Darker skinned women of colour are still disproportionately affected by this today."
"In the painting, Europeans are the only ones seated on furniture."
A report for the ‘Equity Indices Research Project’ highlighting that existing metrics such as GDP do not address equity concerns. Offers context, a ‘belonging lens,’ equity indices case studies, and best practices towards a meta-index aligned with the Capabilities Approach to Human Development.
Part of the Audience Research Toolkit developed for arts organisations in Victoria, Australia, this guide outlines key issues to consider when sharing research findings, including:
* When to share externally
* Key groups of people to share your results with
* Methods of sharing
This resource from the RACC is based on local and national best practices for equity and inclusion - and has had promising applications in the local arts community.
These six building blocks help organisations foster equitable access to the arts by increasing the participation of and engagement with diverse audiences. Each block links out to additional research and resources.
Article on Diversity Arts Australia's 'arts as advocacy' model of research which facilitates creative, open-ended responses and focuses on creating a supportive environment for deep reflection.
“This research and advocacy approach is about shifting culture, not just imposing targets. I’m a big believer in imposing targets, but that’s not going to shift systemic racism. At the end of the day, targets are a response that retrofits a system that doesn’t accommodate us.” ~ Lena Nahlous
Blog post on how to achieve 'strategic alignment' to ensure the outcomes you're measuring align with your goals. Starting from your mission statement you can extract key 'dimension statements' that you can use in audience surveys.
A US study based on interviews with 11 arts organisations in dance, music, theater and multi-disciplinary performing arts, and 10 community-based arts organisations that self-identified as serving predominantly Black, Indigenous, Hispanic/Latinx, Arab American or Asian American communities.
The report finds that leaders from all 21 organizations saw deep community engagement and high-quality programming as critical to financial health.
A toolkit for co-creating an exhibition, with a focus on including the community from beginning to end.
A handout on US-based DS4SI’s “5 S methodology,” signifying Structure, System, Scale, Symbol and Sensation. It is shared as a first step towards designing effective social interventions by exploring and understanding the social, cultural and political terrain before beginning justice work.
This is a classic and very useful step-by-step guide to developing a multicultural audience strategy.
The Report has easy to read case studies and does not have to be read in its entirety. The core of good audience development and marketing does not change, regardless of new technologies. This is a very accessible guide that takes the reader from planning through to development, marketing, and presentation.
Coding qualitative data involves tagging responses with a set of codes which summarise their content, so that statements and responses can be quantified, and thus measured. This article runs through different methods and approaches to coding, including deductive coding, inductive coding, initial coding, line-by-line coding, characterisation and determining themes.
Summary article and link to research on the effectiveness of the British Film Industry Diversity Standards, launched in 2016, which require funded productions to meet diversity criteria, by Dr Clive Nwonka, from the London School of Economics and Political Science.
'Britain’s black and ethnic minority population remain excluded from key areas of the industry, with BAME representation still mostly located in secondary roles rather than as lead characters or in key production roles.'
Advice on how to choose among different types of graphics and charts when presenting evaluation data.
'Graphics can also tell a story, showing proportions, comparisons, trends, geographic and technical data and, in the case of photographs, putting a “human face” on a project.'
This case study is based on a session at Digital Heritage Lab's Digital Skills Day, when Ranjit Atwal spoke to Emma Beck from St Mellitus Organ Restoration Project in Stroud Green, North London and Oonagh Gay, Chair of Islington Guided Walks, about a series of ‘podtours’ they have created. The ‘podtour’ is an audio walking tour exploring highlights of the local community’s musical heritage - and how these can help you find new and more diverse audiences.
One of the United States' leading audience development strategists Donna Walker-Khune in conversation with Michelle Taylor the founder of the artist management company, Passion Music Group.
This inspiring conversation has a lot of educational resources and traces the history and background of The Blacksmiths, a creative coalition committed to using the arts to support racial justice movements and engaging with people of colour and the broader community in the Black Lives Matter movement.
A modular toolkit for designing, strategising for and evaluating impact in social change. Designed for documentary or journalist video-makers, and nonprofit organisations that want to / are using video to engage their communities. Focuses on short form video, specifically for low budgets.
The fifth panel video in Wallace’s arts conversation series asks the question "What can the arts sector learn from arts organizations of color about community engagement and financial health?"
Features conversations between Juan Dies, Sones de Mexico Ensemble; Blake Anthony Johnson, Chicago Sinfonietta; Anh Thu Pham, Theater Mu; Zannie Voss, SMU Data Arts.
Toolkit for designing and carrying out audience surveys at live events, including a survey template, script samples and tips on capturing reliable and high-quality data.
'We've worked with funders and consultants to design scientifically-valid survey methods. We've agonized about how to ask sensitive questions about race or class to perfect strangers. And we've struggled to capture data with staff and volunteers-none of whom are professional researchers or data analysts.'
Fantastic resource developed for arts organisations in Victoria, Australia, this tool offers clear and concise advice on how to write a research report to present the findings of your evaluation. Includes a report template.
A toolkit by Nexus Arts 'designed to assist arts organisations to become more welcoming and inclusive of audiences with culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.'
The research offers a rich and nuanced body of data from a diverse range of communities and diasporas to inform arts organisations on how to better engage with audiences - which includes holistic. It includes a research report and further down, a literature review.